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Suggested reading for the topic: Sodium


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Lenntech reading suggestions for the topic: Sodium

1. Sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant

... Sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant Disinfectants Sodium hypochlorite discovery characteristics pH production applications disinfectants bleaching disinfection health effects advantages and disadvantages regulation Sodium hypochlorite Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a compound that can be affectively used for water purification. It is used on a large scale for surface purification, bleaching, odor removal and water disinfection. When was sodium hypochlorite discovered? Sodium hypochlorite has a long history. Around 1785 the Frenchman Berthollet developed liquid bleaching agents based on sodium hypochlorite. The Javel company introduced this product and called ...

2. Sodium (Na) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects

... Sodium (Na)-Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects Sodium-Na Chemical properties of sodium-Health effects of sodium-Environmental effects of sodium Atomic number 11 Atomic mass 22.98977 g.mol -1 Electronegativity according to Pauling 0.9 Density 0.97 g.cm -3 at 20 ° C Melting point 97.5 ° C Boiling point 883 ° C Vanderwaals radius 0.196 nm Ionic radius 0.095 (+ 1) nm Isotopes 3 Electronic shell [Ne] 3s 1 Energy of first ionisation 495.7 kJ.mol -1 Standard potential-2.71 V Discovered by Sir ...

3. chlorine as disinfectant for water

... , 1999. Watt, 2002) Where can chlorine be found? Chlorine can be found on many different locations all over the world. Chlorine is always found in compounds, because it is a very reactive element. Chlorine can usually be found bond to sodium (Na ), or in kitchen salt (sodium chloride; NaCl). Most chlorine can be found dissolved in seas and salty lakes. Large quantities of chlorine can be found in the ground as rock salts or halite. The properties of chlorine Chlorine (Cl 2) ...

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Pure water 4. Water softener FAQ

... and from time to time flushes them away to drain. Ion exchangers are often used for water softening. When an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and KCl). 2.5 How long does a water softener last? A good water softener will last many years. Softeners that were supplied in the 1980's may still work ...

5. Chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant

... (H 2 SO 3) on potassium chlorate (KClO 3). Than he replaced sulphuric acid by hypochlorous acid (HOCl). In the last few years this reaction has also been used to produce large quantities of chlorine dioxide. Sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) was used instead of potassium chlorate. 2NaClO 3+4HCl ® 2ClO 2+Cl 2+2NaCl+2H 2 O What are the characteristics of chlorine dioxide? Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2) is a synthetic, green-yellowish gas with a chlorine-like, irritating odor ...

6. Information on pure water

... Affections of the digestive and biliary apparatus, gastritis, dispepsia, enteritis, congestión of the liver, biliary litiasis, hepatic colic., urico acid, arthritis, and the “ drop ”. Sodium and magnesics sulphated waters: Their mineralisation constitutes magnesium and sodium sulphates, accompanied generally by chloride and sulphate by lime. These waters have very noticeable laxative properties, when causing peristatics contractions and a liquid flow of the part of the intestine, forcing the purges characteristics depositions Sulphurous waters: The therapeutic action of these waters is eminently parasiticida ...

7. swimming pool water disinfection

... pollutions and pathogenic micro-organisms are constantly added to the water. Therefore the water has to maintain a residual disinfectant concentration. The disinfectant must be easily traced and measured and should be safe to use. Disinfection methods for swimming pool water In some countries, sodium hypochlorite is used for both oxidation and disinfection of swimming pools. When it is added to water, sodium hypochlorite increases the pH value. It is better to use chlorine as a disinfectant and an oxidizer at a pH value of 6, 5. Often, acid is added ...

8. Drinking water preparation

... water usually take place in the reservoirs. Often softening and pH-adjustments already happen during these natural processes. 2) Rapid sand filtration or in some cases microfiltration in drum filters. b: Addition of chemicals 3) pH adjustment through addition of calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide. 4) FeCl 3 addition to induce flocculation for the removal of humic acids and suspended particulate matter, if necessary with the addition of an extra flocculation aid. Flocs are than settled and removed through lamellae separators. After that the flocs are concentrated in sludge and ...

9. Sulfates

... Click here for more information about drinking water standards. How does sulfate enter our water supplies? Some soils and rocks contain sulfate minerals. As groundwater moves through these, some of the sulfate is dissolved into the water. Some minerals that contain sulfate are sodium sulfate (Glauber's salt ), magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt ), and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Magnesium sulfate Sodium sulfate Calcium sulfate (Epsom's salt) (Glauber's salt) (gypsum) Health risks for humans who drink water containing high sulfate levels People not used to drinking ...


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