Due to its capacity to dissolve numerous substances in great amounts, pure water almost does not exist in the nature.
Water, the only substance on earth that can exist as a vapor, liquid, and solid, is the most abundant substance in the human body. It is the most essential nutrient. Every body cell, tissue, organ and life sustaining body process needs water to function. We cannot live without water for more than a few days – less if you are in a dry warm place where you can lose water faster. By comparison, we can live without food for weeks.
The average adult body weight is 55-75% water; the amount varies by age, body composition, gender, and a few other factors. Younger people have more water than older people do. A newborn's weight is 75% water while an elderly individual's weight is about 50% water. The percentage of body weight that is water gradually declines as we age. So how much water you have in your body partly depends on how old you are now. This is also partly due to the muscle tissue: fat tissue proportion. Younger individuals tend to have more muscle than older people do. Lean tissue (muscle) has more water than fat tissue. Therefore, the leaner the individual the higher the water proportion. Men, who on average have more lean tissue than women, have a higher percentage of water than women do. Blood is 83% water, lean muscle is 73% water, body fat is 25% water and bone is 22% water.
Water is also the most abundant nutrient in your diet. Drinking water and other liquids are the main source, but by no means the sole source. We eat a lot of water too. Juicy fruits and vegetables like lettuce, watermelon, grapefruit, and tomatoes are all more than 90% water. Other solid foods like chicken, beef, fish, breads, pasta, and even butter and margarine and dried fruit and nuts have at least some water. Oils usually don't contain any water.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF WATER
THE MOST IMPORTANT, DRINKING WATER
There are some types of water, that you can buy. This includes distilled water, mineral water, spring water, still water, sparkling water, seltzer water, and plain bottled water. Distilled water is tap water that had been boiled to steam. The steam is collected and condensed back into the liquid without impurities, chemicals, and minerals. This would be the kind of water you would want to use in your humidifier and steam iron if you live in Albuquerque, unless you don't mind having to replace these small appliances every few years due to the mineral buildup. Distilled water is also essential for chemical and pharmaceutical processing. Mineral water is spring water – it is naturally alkaline and had a mild diuretic effect. Spring water is mineral water but is usually used to describe water from surface springs (opposed to underground springs). Spring water has fewer minerals and some people think it has a “cleaner” taste than mineral water. Still water is spring water that has come up to the surface on its own, while sparkling water is pushed to the surface by naturally occurring gasses in the underground spring. Sparkling water will have bubbles and still water won't. Seltzer water is also known as soda water, club soda, or plain carbonated water. Originally, seltzer was flavorless naturally effervescent water named after the town of Nieder Selters in Germany. “Human made” seltzer water, introduced in the late 1700’s, is water with carbon dioxide injected into it. In the 1840’s flavor was added to seltzer water and soda pop was born.
The water of the different water brands is drinking water very similar to tap water, and various quantities of mineral water flows to the surface in very diverse volumes: from insignificant spring to spurts of great abundance able to form true lagoons. The temperature at which it well up is very different and can be classified in:
Sulphated calcic water:
They are characterized by the abundance of sulphuric acid like negative element and calcium like positive, given as dominant sulphate of lime or gypsum. They are indicated in cases of infections of urinary route, nephritic litiasis, renal colic, cystitis. Infections of the digestive and biliary apparatus, gastritis, dyspepsia, enteritis, congestion of the liver, biliary litiasis, hepatic colic., uric acid, arthritis.
Sodium and magnesics sulphated water:
Their mineralization constitutes magnesium and sodium sulphates, accompanied generally by chloride and sulphate by lime. These waters have very noticeable laxative properties, when causing peristatics contractions and a liquid flow of the part of the intestine, forcing the purges characteristics depositions
The therapeutic action of this water is mainly anti vermin. Sulphurous water is specially advised in cases of skin infection, bronchi and lungs diseases, as well as diseases in female genital apparatus. Sulphorous water is divided in two classes: the sodium sulphurous water, and calcic sulphurous water.
Chlorinated water contain an high amount of sodium chloride associated in greater or smaller amounts, chlorides, alkaline sulphates, bicarbonates, bromides, iodides and even sulfides. Sea water is rich in sodium chlorine; baths in this water are recommended to people debilitated as a result of recent diseases, rheumatism in bones and joints, gouts, uterine transtornos. Inhalated in form of vapour, chlorinated water is used against infections of the respiratory routes (except asthma), nasal graves, chronic colds, gripal and catarrhal congestion.
They are eminently alkaline, his mineralization constitute bicarbonates alkaline with excess of carbonic acid, practically in his totality and thanks to the free carbon dioxide gas. They are divided in: Sodium, Calcic and Mixed. In the sodium, the main element is the soda bicarbonate. In calcic earthy bicarbonates they surpass to alkaline bicarbonates, are essentially gaseous. In the mixed ones they form with similar amounts of alkaline-te'rreos bicarbonates with abundant free carbonic acid. Its physiological action on the stomach and debedo to the action of alkaline ones dissolves the mucosa, stimulates the contractilidad, facilitates the stomach evacuation and are indicated in the gastrointestinal agony, neutralizes the acidity and eliminates the stomach hyperacidity. They are very effective against the morbosos states related to upheavals of the nutrition (drop, uric litiasis, obesity, diabetes and certain rheumatisms.
Ferruginous water contains oxides, hydrates, carbonates and sulfides of iron. In some cases it contains manganese and arsenic form an iron-arsenical water sub-group. Generally ferruginous water is cold and it is used as drinking water. It is indicated in the nervous states produced by weakness, in individual neurasthenia, chlorosis, anemia and all the states of weakness.
Acidic or carbonic water:
Acidic or carbonic water contain more than 259 mg of carbon dioxide or free gas. In alkaline water sodium or bicarbonates salts, like the sodium chloride, are predominant.
Bitter water is sulphated water, rich in magnesium and sulphates.
Radioactive water contains dissolved radioactive substances, in form of emissions or radio or thorium salts. Radioactive water has a sedative effect on the vegetative system and facilitate the endocrine-nervous balance. It is used in chronic arthritics, drop, obesity, arterial hypertension and some kinds of feminine hysterism. It is very important to confine it in the same spring, since the radioactivity disappears quite quickly.
Oligomineral water is water with little mineralization.
When water is taken out rivers or dams, it can contain dirt, small pieces of leaves and other organic matters, in addition to small amounts of some polluting agents. When water arrives at the treatment plant, some coagulating agents called coagulants are added. Coagulants react with water as it flows slowly in tanks and particles and other polluting agents are deposited and extracted. Afterwards, the water flows through a filter that remove the smallest polluting agents like virus and Giardia.
Almost all the underground water filters through soil layers during its run towards underground dams. Water pumped out from wells by suppliers contains less organic materials than superficial water and it is generally possible that it does not need treatment. The quality of the water depends on local conditions.
Disinfection is the most common drinking water treatment. Mainly chlorine or other disinfectants are used to remove bacteria and other germs. In systems in which water is contaminated with organics can be treated with activated carbon, which absorbs or attracts chemicals dissolved in water.
Effects on the health
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has established safety standards for more than 80 polluting agents than can be found in drinking water and that represent a risk for human health. These polluting agents can be divided in two groups according to their effects.
Acute effects reveal hours or days after human consumption of polluting agent. Almost all the polluting agents can have an acute effect if assumed at very high levels from drinking water. In these cases the polluting agents most likely to cause acute effects are bacteria and viruses. Most of people imunitary systems are able to fight these microbial polluting agents as they fight germs. Usually these acute polluting agents do not have permanent effects. However, they can cause diseases and be dangerous or fatal for who has a weak imunitary system due to HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, use of steroids or to any other reason.
The chronic effects reveal in case of many years assumption of polluting agents at higher levels than the safety level recommended by EPA. Polluting agents in drinking water that could cause chronic effects are chemicals, radioactive compounds or elements (as radius) and minerals (as arsenic).
Examples of chronic effects of polluting agents in drinking water, there are cancer, problems in liver or kidneys or difficulties in reproduction.
In this page we described the most important types of water: tap water and mineral water. From a small analysis we can conclude that mineral water has some advantages for health compared to tap water, due to its mineral content. Nevertheless the water that we normally use in our homes is effectively purified, using modern methods like ozone, chloride dioxide, and ultraviolet disinfection, all available at Lenntech. This makes water perfect for human consumption.