Periodic table history
History of the periodic table of chemical elements
|In 1669 German merchant and amateur alchemist Hennig Brand attempted to created a Philosopher’s Stone; an object that supposedly could turn metals into pure gold. He heated residues from boiled urine, and a liquid dropped out and burst into flames. This was the first discovery of phosphorus. |
In 1680 Robert Boyle also discovered phosphorus, and it became public.
In 1809 at least 47 elements were discovered, and scientists began to see patterns in the characteristics.
In 1863 English chemist John Newlands divided the then discovered 56 elements into 11 groups, based on characteristics.
In 1869 Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev started the development of the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic mass. He predicted the discovery of other elements, and left spaces open in his periodic table for them.
In 1886 French physicist Antoine Bequerel first discovered radioactivity. Thomson student from New Zealand Ernest Rutherford named three types of radiation; alpha, beta and gamma rays. Marie and Pierre Curie started working on the radiation of uranium and thorium, and subsequently discovered radium and polonium. They discovered that beta particles were negatively charged.
In 1894 Sir William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh discovered the noble gases, which were added to the periodic table as group 0.
In 1897 English physicist J. J. Thomson first discovered electrons; small negatively charged particles in an atom. John Townsend and Robert Millikan determined their exact charge and mass.