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Coagulation-Flocculation The stages in agglomeration Coagulants and flocculants Reagents
Type of reagents Examples

Applications in Water treatment

Inorganic Coagulants

-Aluminium salts

-Aluminium polymers

-Iron salts

-Other inorganic coagulants

Surface water clarification

Wastewater treatment

Surface water clarification

Removal of phosphates


Water with organic matter

To ignit sea water coagulation

Natural Flocculants

-Inorganic flocculants

-Organic flocculants (natural polymers)

Cold water

With Ferric salts

With aluminium salts

Synthetic Organic Coagulants


In-line coagulation :In filtering sea water

Industrial wastewater :This is the main field of application involving organic coagulants.

Synthetic organic flocculants

Surface water :We are used to combinate synthetic flocculant with coagulant in the clarification process. The best polymer is usually one that is anionic or very slightly cationic.

Industrial wastewater :In this case of treatment an inorganic coagulant, an anionicpolymer is used. In some special cases (such as surface treatment, stellworks, gas scrubbing), a cationic flocculant polymer alone is often the most effective.

Municipal wastewater :In combinaison with an inorganic coagulant, the best flocculant is usually one of the anionic type. When only SS removal is desired, a synthetic flocculant may be used alone.

Sludge dewatering :Cationic flocculants are usually adapted to the treatment of organic sludge. Inorganic sludge requires the use of anionic flocculants.

Resource: Water treatment Handbook Degrémont

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