Composition of seawater

Major ion composition of seawater (mg/L)

Typical Seawater Eastern Mediterranean Arabian Gulf at Kuwait Red Sea at Jeddah
Chloride (Cl-) 18.980 21.200 23.000 22.219
Sodium (Na+) 10.556 11.800 15.850 14.255
Sulfate (SO42-) 2.649 2.950 3.200 3.078
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.262 1.403 1.765 742
Calcium (Ca2+) 400 423 500 225
Potassium (K+) 380 463 460 210
Bicarbonate(HCO3-) 140 - 142 146
Strontium (Sr2+) 13 - - -
Bromide (Br-) 65 155 80 72
Borate (BO33-) 26 72 - -
Fluoride (F-) 1 - - -
Silicate (SiO32-) 1 - 1,5 -
Iodide (I-) <1 2 - -
Others - - - -
Total dissolved solids (TDS) 34.483 38.600 45.000 41.000

Note: The dot (.) separates thousands
The comma (,) separates decimals

Source: Magazine - Water Condition & purification, Januray 2005

Reverse Osmosis Systems
Softener Unit FAQ

Currently the world uses 11.000 desalination plants to produce daily 20 million cubic meters per day. They mostly use seawater with an average TDS of 40.000 ppm and brackish water with an average TDS of 10.000 ppm and can be found in each continent

West Asia & Middle east 60%
North America 11%
North Africa 7%
Europe 7%
South and Central America 4
Other 11%







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