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... the mechanisms of scaling and the species involved is highlighted. Keywords: Scaling; CaCO3; CaSO4; SiO2; Thermodynamic equilibrium; Pitzer model; Softening; Silica removal 0011-9164/09/$– See front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserve ...
Desalination 244 (2009)

... optimization that led to selection of these nanofiltration elements for the Boca Raton plant will be described as well. Keywords: Nanofiltrtaion; Softening; Membrane fouling 1. Introduction The nanofiltration (NF) membranes and their properties are quite diverse, but can generally be described a ...
Desalination 221 (2008)

... capacity equal to 500 tons each. The aforementioned chillers are supplied with water through the public water network, which firstly undergoes a softening process, performed by a softener, and covers all the hotel’s requirements. The chillers supply chilled water to seven central air-conditionin ...
Desalination 213 (2007)

The paper presents results of a study investigating softening by nanofiltration of the Hamma underground water resource. The Hamma wells supply the City of Constantine with hard drinking water containin ...
Desalination 171 (2004)

... addition, ceramic ultrafiltration (CUF), antiscalant, and a single-pass RO system operated at natural pH, while the treatment train 2 included softening, coagulant addition, CUF system, weak acid cation ion exchange, antiscalant addition, and an RO system operated at alkaline pH. RO permeate ...
Desalination 360 (2015)

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