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... analysis and financial assessment of membrane-based systems and pertinent pretreatment requirements. This paper addresses the comparative economics of the following systems (a) activated carbon (AC)/ultrafiltration (UF)/reverse osmosis (RO), (b) UF/ electrodialysis reversal (EDR)/RO, (c) AC
Desalination 152 (2002)

... for financial evaluation such profit ratios, debt coverage ratio and internal rate of return on equity. Keywords: IWP (independent water plants); Economics; Finances; Phasing; Feasibility 1. Introduction Various independent water desalination plants (IWP) or combination of desalination and powe ...
Desalination 135 (2001)

... cost evaluation of the proposed solar distillation systems. Keywords: Solar energy; Direct steam generation; Parabolic trough collectors; Economics; Seawater desalination; Multi-stage flash; Multi-effect distillation 1. Introduction A solar collector may be used to generate steam from brine.
Desalination 126 (1999)

... area, and a number of thermodynamic losses. Keywords: Desalination; Modeling; Computer simulation; Thermal desalination; Membrane separation; Economics 1. Introduction In arid and semi-arid regions around the globe, the desalination industry has proved to be the most viable solution to provide ...
Desalination 165 (2004)

... production cost taking into account all phases from site selection and design to operation and maintenance. Desalination 165 (2004) 215–218 Economics of seawater desalination in Libya Mukhtar M. Ashour*, Salem M. Ghurbal Tajora Research Center, P.O. Box 30878, Tripoli, Libya email: ashour6 ...
Desalination 165 (2004)

... for large-scale RO desalination system for the presented case. Keywords: Brackish water; Desalination; Supply matrix; Institutional aspects; Economics 1. Introduction Desalting technologies represent an immediate defense barrier against current water shortage *Corresponding author. problem i ...
Desalination 152 (2002)

... the current research activities to establish the appropriate technology for adaptation, local manufacturing experiences, unit size, process and economics. Water demand in a vastly growing and developing Egyptian community is characterized by a rising standard of living, expanded industrialization i ...
Desalination 136 (2001)

... variables. Undoubtedly, the cost is competitive with conventional processes and is designed to result in higher reliability along with improved economics of desalting technology. The combined savings due to lower investment and operating cost, besides the ability to optimize system operatin ...
Desalination 134 (2001)

... with conventional energies in solar desalination. Keywords: Seawater distillation; Solar parabolic trough collectors, Multieffect distillation; Economics; Direct steam generation 1. Introduction The solar technology of one-axis concentration provides a simple operation and high reliable system t ...
Desalination 125 (1999)

... show that the selective fermentation coupled to membrane processes to removal of ethanol is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics, although membrane performance and costs should still be improved. In this work the preliminary economic analysis of a continuous selectiv ...
Desalination 147 (2002)

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