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Cost

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... d. Results reveal the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of the proposed treatment/desalination system. The capital, operating and unit costs have been estimated. Recommendations for management of brine have been developed. The proposed scheme mandates a careful environmental managemen ...
Desalination 152 (2002)

... rate at other potentials, small deviations were found. Within the range of potentials and flow rates applied in the ED system (TS-1-10 Tokuyama), a cost analysis and a model development were carried out for the brine containing 580 mg Na+/L. Although the higher the potential applied, the shorter th ...
Desalination 136 (2001)

An economic study was conducted to evaluate the costs of fluoride removal by electrodialysis on the basis of industrial and economic data. The investment and operating costs were estimated for a ...
Desalination 230 (2008)

... matter removal from coagulated surface water, but the process should also be economically feasible and environmentally sustainable when applied. Cost and environmental impact of nanofiltration installed after conventional surface water treatment were calculated and evaluated at different operatin ...
Desalination 201 (2006)

... m2. The frequency of operation of the vacuum pump and the yield of desalinated water for various beam solar radiations is carried out from which the cost of water is determined. The cost of desalinated water is found to be 0.9 ¢/l. The desalinated water is tested for various parameters and th ...
Desalination 173 (2005)

In light of broad use of the electrodialysis (ED) processes, it has become crucial to minimize its operating costs. The total cost of the ED process consists of energy, investment and maintenance costs. Energy cost increases linearly with the current density while the investmen ...
Desalination 153 (2002)

... of ultrafiltration technology for drinking water production has shown rapid development from the beginning of the 1990s. There has been a constant cost reduction of this technology over the last ten years allowing evolution (new polymers, new module designs, etc.), and a decrease of the system cost ...
Desalination 148 (2002)

... water of varying quality. Outputs include the selected treatment trains, intermediate and final water characteristics and capital and operating costs for two typical cases. It is concluded that the developed expert system could be used for rapid and reliable decision making on the optimu ...
Desalination 152 (2002)

... , instrumentation and control, brine disposal, utilities consumption, chemicals consumption, and personnel requirements and training. Product water costs were also estimated based on capital and operational costs including utility and chemicals costs so that a complete evaluation was obtained. Result ...
Desalination 139 (2001)

... practices and have the highest gross value of irrigated agricultural production. Groundwater was identified as the most likely feedwater source for cost-effective desalination, which is also the case worldwide. Brine disposal is a major factor in overall cost effectiveness of desalination. Whe ...
Desalination 364 (2015)
 

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