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... 0.38 million m3/d from RO plants. Based on these figures, the daily chemical discharge amounts to 2,708 kg chlorine, 36 kg copper and 9,478 kg antiscalants, when effluent concentrations of 0.25 ppm, 0.015 ppm and 2 ppm are assumed, respectively. The sensitivity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba t ...
Desalination 152 (2002)

... operating conditions. These calculations are normally carried out by using software, supplied either by the membrane manufacturers or by antiscalants manufacturers. Often the user will accept the results without question, and without fully understanding their meaning or the methods an ...
Desalination 139 (2001)

... data, thus lending support to the proposed induction time technique. Keywords: Scaling limits; CaSO4 scaling; Induction time; Scale deposition; Antiscalants *Corresponding author. Presented at the European Conference on Desalination and the Environment: Water Shortage, Lemesos, Cyprus, 28–31 Ma ...
Desalination 139 (2001)

... thus the kinetics of the crystallisation is of particular interest. The kinetics of scale formation, especially together with impurities like antiscalants, is poorly understood. Here a physical model of the scaling process is described which focuses on the kinetics and thus can explain a wid ...
Desalination 224 (2008)

... be discussed while suspending either antiscalant dosing or on-line rubber ball cleaning scale control technique. Keywords: Multi-stage flash; Antiscalants; Dose rate; Safety margin * Corresponding author. Presented at the International Conference on Seawater Desalination Technologies on th ...
Desalination 134 (2001)

... 712141; Fax +44 (1753) 712040: e-mail: ask@,permacare.com Received 21 June 2000; accepted 3 July 2000 A bstract Today, almost a hundred membrane antiscalants are in use around the world, yet the market is dominated by fewer than five. These are the products that are marketed strongly and sold globall ...
Desalination ()

The effect of exposure reverse osmosis (RO) membrane to antiscalants (AS) on consequent organic fouling during seawater desalination was analyzed. Membrane surface properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential ...
Desalination 352 (2014)

... Antiscalants have been used to inhibit the formation of scales and reduce the risk of membrane scaling. However, issues such as the increased of biofoulin ...
Desalination (2016)

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