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Water softening

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The paper presents the results of tests carried out on selected membranes, SEPA (Osmonics Inc., USA). The efficiency of membrane water softening was evaluated on the basis of permeate flux and the physicochemical analysis of raw water and permeate. The transport-separatio ...
Desalination 145 (2002)

Performances of electromembrane systems were investigated for removal of the hardness materials in a tap water. Six cells of ED, EDR, and EDIR systems with an electrode area of 12.5 cm ´ 8.0 cm were operated. The results showed scaling formation due to water... compared to EDR due to the conductance of ion exchange resins. This study demonstrated the feasibility of EDR and EDIR processes for water softening. This study showed the performances of EDR and EDIR systems as an alternative process of ion exchange for removal of hardness ions in tap water.
Desalination 202 (2006)

... presents an investigation on the removal of hardness by using a crossflow membrane reactor. Lime soda (LS) and caustic soda (CS) were added to hard water as softening chemical agents. The effect of the LS–CS dosage, specific cake resistances (") and transmembrane pressure drop ()P) on steady-stat ...
Desalination 159 (2003)

A membrane separation process, nanofiltration (NF), has been applied successfully for treatment of oil sands waters, particularly to water softening and removal of toxic components. This study focused on the selection of appropriate membranes and the assessment of their performance fo ...
Desalination 170 (2004)

Fibrous ion exchangers (FIBAN) have been studied in a model process of water softening and removal from water simultaneously present heavy metal ions: Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+. The effect of the following factors on the efficiency of Ca2+ remova ...
Desalination 124 (1999)

The results of nanofiltration of natural waters have been described using the extended Nernst– Planck equation. The model of NF based on that DS-5-DK DS-5-DK 1) Gl. 1MPa 1) Gl. 2MPa 1) ww 2MPa... of pore and water viscosities, ηp/η0, calculated from Eq. (18) and fitted rp. Desalination 163 (2004) 137–151 Modelling of nanofiltration in softening water Klaudia Wesolowskaa*, Stanislaw Koterb, Michal Bodzeka a Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Water and Wastewater Engineering ...
Desalination 163 (2004)

Packed bed of polypyrrole/polystyrene sulfonate (PPy/PSS) electrodeposited porous carbon electrode was prepared and used for continuous water softening from flowing artificial hard water solutions. Careful preparation of the packed bed was performed in order to obtain the greates ...
Desalination 235 (2009)

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