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Cost estimation

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... reasonably satisfied to predict the SWRO desalination plant performance in terms of permeate water concentration and flow rate. And the results of cost estimation show a possibility that the models can successfully predict total annual profits (TAP) within the order of magnitude of USD/year ...
Desalination 249 (2009)

... production technologies. Some of these technologies do not provide good quality, and others — while the quality of the product is good — the cost is too high and needs to be reduced. As it is well known from the literature, the organics rejection of nanofiltration (NF) membranes should be very... flux and total solid rejection was investigated. The experimental data were modeled by using Rautenbach’s osmotic pressure model. The cost estimation of the NF and the RO was also made. With using NF the investment (lower applied pressure, higher flux) and operation costs (lower pressure) o ...
Desalination 162 (2004)

An optimization of the electrodialysis process and an estimation of its costs by the analysis of experimental results of model natrium chloride solutions was compared to the optimization and cost estimation made by using th ...
Desalination 153 (2002)

... to reverse osmosis. It is stated that ED may compete with RO in the range of feed water salinity up to 8–10 g/L only because ED desalination cost is proportional to the amount of salt, which must be carried through the membrane. It is assumed in the papers comparing RO and ED that exergy loss... water cost was equal to 1.05 $/m3 assuming 0.06 $/kWh. Keywords: Seawater desalination; Electrodialysis; Drinking water production; Cost estimation Presented at the EuroMed 2002 conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries: Cooperation between Mediterranean Countrie ...
Desalination 153 (2002)

... were to concentrate the valuable components of wine by nanofiltration, to describe the mathematical model of the permeate flux and to estimate the cost of the process. Laboratory-size equipment with a nanofiltration membrane was used for the concentration. The experiments were carried out at... and volatile acid content. A mathematical modelling and cost analysis of the process were also performed. Keywords: Wine; Nanofiltration; Cost estimation; Modelling 1. Introduction Wine consumption has a great tradition all over the world. Even in ancient Egypt and Greece people knew and liked wine.
Desalination 198 (2006)

... desalinated water (ED diluate) is obtained at the same time. Its further desalination for potable water production may be considered to decrease costs of ED by obtaining two valuable products instead of mere salt. Univalent ion permeable ion-exchange membranes are however applied in ED process and... cost is estimated to be only $0.44/m3. Keywords: Dual-purpose desalination; Salt production; Electrodialysis; Drinking water production; Cost estimation; Integrated systems Presented at the EuroMed 2002 conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries: Cooperation betwee ...
Desalination 153 (2002)

... • A zero discharge process was proposed to recover acid, base and glyphosate. • A cost assessment of the recovery of glyphosate is presented. • Membrane technology is environmentally friendly to treat the glyphosate liquor. A hybrid... Accepted 24 November 2013 Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Glyphosate liquor Nanofiltration Electrodialysis with bipolar membrane Cost estimation a b s t r a c t Glyphosate is a contaminant in organisms including humans, but also in food, fodder and ecosystems. The direct discharge o ...
Desalination 342 (2014)

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