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Calcium carbonate

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... by nanofiltration of the Hamma underground water resource. The Hamma wells supply the City of Constantine with hard drinking water containing calcium bicarbonate. The main parameters investigated were pressure, cross-flow velocity and water temperature. Nanofiltration was found to be a ver ...
Desalination 171 (2004)

... means of a weighted method showed that plastic materials have a greater scaling susceptibility than metallic materials. The parameters influencing calcium carbonate precipitation, a major constituent of scale, remain difficult to master. We were interested in the effect of water hardness, temperatur ...
Desalination 166 (2004)

... overcome sulfate scaling. These new type of membranes is a nanofiltration membrane (NF). NF membranes have the ability to remove the sulfate and calcium ions in seawater feed, as a result the risk for sulfate scaling is eliminated. This paper mainly aims to study the scaling potential of CaCO3,... be considered as a revolution in the MSF plants when applied at high operation temperature. Keywords: Nanofiltration; Sulfate scaling; Calcium carbonate; Ion product; Solubility product *Corresponding author. Presented at the EuroMed 2004 conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranea ...
Desalination 167 (2004)

... 2 2 Nanofiltration of saturated calcium sulfate solution of 0.02 mol/L calcium content, with CO3 !/SO4 ! molar ratio !3 !4 2 ranging from 0.0500 to 2.8×10 was carried out in 6.5×10 m active membrane area laboratory module... 24 h and then examined using the X-ray diffraction method. Gypsum and aragonite were identified as the most common calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate precipitates, respectively. A mixed salt Ca2(CO3)(SO4)@4H2O (so-called rapidcreekite) was also identified as a result of carbonate and sulfate c ...
Desalination 159 (2003)

... Calcium carbonate scale inhibition by three inhibitors, polyacrylic acid (PAA), aminotrimethylenephosphonic acid (ATMP) and polyamino polyethe ...
Desalination 228 (2008)

Scaling, often due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate, is a current problem in economical and technical life. To study this phenomenon, some experimental procedures have been developed. The ...
Desalination 220 (2008)

... since EM-1 has all the multi-functional properties required to control deposition and can be used in high-temperature plants. EM-2 has excellent calcium carbonate inhibition and dispersion properties and hence can be used in low-temperature plants. The extended field trials for EM-1 and EM- ...
Desalination 124 (1999)

The influence of process conditions such as feed rate, calcium/carbonate ratio, pH, complexing agents [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citrate (CIT)] and their concentration on the average particl ...
Desalination 159 (2003)

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