Water recycling in the paper industry
Water reuse in the paper and cellulose industry
Because the increased environmental awareness and stringent legislation the paper and cellulose industry are forced to reduce their water consumption. Normally the wastewater from a paper plant is biologically treated, but the quality of the effluent may be good enough for disposal but it is not high enough for reuse as process water.
 Niina Laitinen, Antero Luonsi, Erkki Levänen, Marianne Nyström, Effect of backflushing conditions on ultrafiltration of board industry wastewaters with ceramic membranes. Tampere, Finland 2001