| || |
The most important liquid fuels are crude petroleum, and various oily residues obtained in distilling petroleum, shale oil and coal tar.
Crude petroleum and the residuum from the manufacture of burning oils and lubricators, are the chief sources in this country. The residuum from Russian petroleum, called "astatki," is very extensively used in southern Russia.
Crude petroleum is easily regulated so as to burn without smoke or soot, giving a steady heat and requiring no stoking. It is less bulky, and from two to two and a half times as efficient as anthracite coal. Its calorific intensity is about 20,000 C., and it evaporates about 16 lbs. of water to one pound of oil. One pound of coal-tar residue evaporates 13 lbs. of water.
Liquid fuel is coming into more general use every year, especially where long flame and high temperature are desired. It is usually burned as spray, being forced into the furnace by a large atomizer supplied with an air blast or superheated steam.
Organic Chemistry for the industry
Inorganic Chemistry for the industry
Lixiviation Levigation Evaporation Distillation Sublimation Filtration Crystallization Calcination Refrigeration Density Fuels Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels Water Sulphur Sulphur Derivatives Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric acid burners Fuming Sulphuric acid Salt Hydrochloric Acid Soda Industry Caustic Soda Treatment of tank Ammonia Soda Cryolite Soda process Chlorine Industry Electrolytic Chlorine Hypochlorites